Harris Dogar turned 2 today!
color of pradise The story revolves around a blind boy named Mohammed who is released from his special school in Tehran for summer vacation. His father, shamed and burdened by Mohammed’s blindness, arrives late to pick him up and then tries to convince the headmaster to keep Mohammed over the summer. The headmaster refuses, so Mohammed’s father eventually takes him home. Mohammed’s father, who is a widower, now wants to marry a local girl and is preparing for the wedding. He approaches the girl’s parents with gifts and they give him approval. He tries to hide the fact that he has a blind son because he fears the girl’s family will see that as a bad omen. Meanwhile, Mohammed happily roams around the beautiful hills of his village with his sisters. He touches and feels the nature around him, counting the sounds of animals, and imitating them. He displays a unique attitude towards nature, and seems to understand its rhythms and textures as a language. Mohammed goes to the local school with his sisters and reads the lessons from his textbook in Braille, which amazes the children and the teacher. Fearing his bride-to-be’s family will learn of Mohammed, his father takes him away and leaves him with a blind carpenter who agrees to make him an apprentice. The blind carpenter mentors the boy, who wants to see God. Mohammad says God does not love him and thus made him blind and tells him about how his teacher told him that God loves them more as they are blind, but then asks why God should make him blind if he loves him more. He also tells him that he wanted to be able to see God, to which his teacher had said that God is everywhere and that you can also feel God. The carpenter then just says that he agrees with his teacher and walks away, possibly affected by the boy’s words, as he himself is blind. Mohammed’s grandmother is heartbroken when she realizes that Hashem (Mohammed’s father) has given him away to a blind carpenter and she falls ill. She leaves the family home but Hashem tries to convince her to stay back, questioning his destiny, wondering why he lost his father as a young boy, asking why God has taken away his wife and cursed him with a blind boy, and asking his mother what she did for him. Mohammed’s grandmother faints on her way so Hashem carries her back home. Eventually Mohammed’s grandmother dies. The bride’s family sees this as a bad omen and the wedding is called off. His hopes destroyed, Mohammed’s father decides to bring him back. The film shows glimpses of shame and pity that Hashem felt for himself and his son all along. He goes back to the blind carpenter and takes back Mohammed. They head for home through the woods. As they cross a small, crudely made wooden bridge over a stream, the bridge collapses and Mohammed falls into the water and is carried away by the strong currents. For a moment his father stands petrified, looking on in shock at the sight of his son being dragged away; he appears to be mentally torn between rescuing him and finally becoming free of this lifelong burden. Moments later he makes his decision and dashes into the river, and is also carried along swiftly by the roaring water, behind Mohammed. As the film ends, Mohammed’s father wakes up on the shore of the Caspian Sea and sees Mohammed lying motionless a short distance away. He drags himself up and stumbles towards Mohammed’s body and takes it in his arms. In the ending scene, Mohammed’s father sits weeping over his son’s body and looking to the skies. You can hear the sound of a woodpecker, and Mohammed’s fingers slowly start to move; perhaps he is “reading” the sound with his fingers as if they are Braille dots. Maybe he thinks the woodpecker is giving clues about “the color of God”.

color of pradise

The story revolves around a blind boy named Mohammed who is released from his special school in Tehran for summer vacation. His father, shamed and burdened by Mohammed’s blindness, arrives late to pick him up and then tries to convince the headmaster to keep Mohammed over the summer. The headmaster refuses, so Mohammed’s father eventually takes him home.

Mohammed’s father, who is a widower, now wants to marry a local girl and is preparing for the wedding. He approaches the girl’s parents with gifts and they give him approval. He tries to hide the fact that he has a blind son because he fears the girl’s family will see that as a bad omen.

Meanwhile, Mohammed happily roams around the beautiful hills of his village with his sisters. He touches and feels the nature around him, counting the sounds of animals, and imitating them. He displays a unique attitude towards nature, and seems to understand its rhythms and textures as a language. Mohammed goes to the local school with his sisters and reads the lessons from his textbook in Braille, which amazes the children and the teacher.

Fearing his bride-to-be’s family will learn of Mohammed, his father takes him away and leaves him with a blind carpenter who agrees to make him an apprentice. The blind carpenter mentors the boy, who wants to see God. Mohammad says God does not love him and thus made him blind and tells him about how his teacher told him that God loves them more as they are blind, but then asks why God should make him blind if he loves him more. He also tells him that he wanted to be able to see God, to which his teacher had said that God is everywhere and that you can also feel God. The carpenter then just says that he agrees with his teacher and walks away, possibly affected by the boy’s words, as he himself is blind.

Mohammed’s grandmother is heartbroken when she realizes that Hashem (Mohammed’s father) has given him away to a blind carpenter and she falls ill. She leaves the family home but Hashem tries to convince her to stay back, questioning his destiny, wondering why he lost his father as a young boy, asking why God has taken away his wife and cursed him with a blind boy, and asking his mother what she did for him. Mohammed’s grandmother faints on her way so Hashem carries her back home. Eventually Mohammed’s grandmother dies. The bride’s family sees this as a bad omen and the wedding is called off.

His hopes destroyed, Mohammed’s father decides to bring him back. The film shows glimpses of shame and pity that Hashem felt for himself and his son all along. He goes back to the blind carpenter and takes back Mohammed. They head for home through the woods. As they cross a small, crudely made wooden bridge over a stream, the bridge collapses and Mohammed falls into the water and is carried away by the strong currents. For a moment his father stands petrified, looking on in shock at the sight of his son being dragged away; he appears to be mentally torn between rescuing him and finally becoming free of this lifelong burden. Moments later he makes his decision and dashes into the river, and is also carried along swiftly by the roaring water, behind Mohammed.

As the film ends, Mohammed’s father wakes up on the shore of the Caspian Sea and sees Mohammed lying motionless a short distance away. He drags himself up and stumbles towards Mohammed’s body and takes it in his arms.

In the ending scene, Mohammed’s father sits weeping over his son’s body and looking to the skies. You can hear the sound of a woodpecker, and Mohammed’s fingers slowly start to move; perhaps he is “reading” the sound with his fingers as if they are Braille dots. Maybe he thinks the woodpecker is giving clues about “the color of God”.

majid majidi Majid Majidi was born in Teheran in 1959 from an Iranian middle class family. After the Islamic revolution in 1978, his interest in cinema brought him to act in various films, notably “Boycott” (1985) from Mohsen Makhmalbaf. His debut as a director and screenwriter is marked by “Baduk” (1992), his first feature film that was presented at the Directors Fortnight in Cannes. “Children of Heaven" (1997) won the "Best Picture" at Montreal International Film Festival and was nominated for Best Foreign Film Academy Award. "The Color of Paradise” (1999) has also won the “Best Picture” award at Montreal International Film Festival. This film has been selected as one of the best 10 films of year 2000 by Time Magazine and the Critics Picks of the New-York Times. “Baran” has won several major awards worldwide, notably the “Best Picture” award at the 25th Montreal World Film Festival and nominated for the European Film Academy Award. In 2001, during the Afghanistan war, he produced Barefoot to Herat , an emotional documentary on Afghanistan’s refugee camps, that won the Fipresci Award at Thessaloniki Festival. In 2005, he directed “The Willow Tree" that won four awards at the 2005 Fajr Festival in Tehran. Majjid Majid has received the Douglas Sirk Award in 2001, and the Amici Vittorio de Sica Award in 2003.

majid majidi

Majid Majidi was born in Teheran in 1959 from an Iranian middle class family. After the Islamic revolution in 1978, his interest in cinema brought him to act in various films, notably “Boycott” (1985) from Mohsen Makhmalbaf. His debut as a director and screenwriter is marked by “Baduk” (1992), his first feature film that was presented at the Directors Fortnight in Cannes. “Children of Heaven" (1997) won the "Best Picture" at Montreal International Film Festival and was nominated for Best Foreign Film Academy Award. "The Color of Paradise” (1999) has also won the “Best Picture” award at Montreal International Film Festival. This film has been selected as one of the best 10 films of year 2000 by Time Magazine and the Critics Picks of the New-York Times. “Baran” has won several major awards worldwide, notably the “Best Picture” award at the 25th Montreal World Film Festival and nominated for the European Film Academy Award. In 2001, during the Afghanistan war, he produced Barefoot to Herat , an emotional documentary on Afghanistan’s refugee camps, that won the Fipresci Award at Thessaloniki Festival. In 2005, he directed “The Willow Tree" that won four awards at the 2005 Fajr Festival in Tehran.
Majjid Majid has received the Douglas Sirk Award in 2001, and the Amici Vittorio de Sica Award in 2003.

camera angles The camera angle marks the specific location at which a movie camera or video camera is placed to take a shot. A scene may be shot from several camera angles.This will give different experience and sometimes emotion. the different camera angles will have different effects on the viewer and how they perceive the scene that is shot. There are a few different routes that a camera operator could take to achieve their desired effect.   Where the camera is placed in relation to the subject greatly affects the way the viewer perceives that subject. A Viewpoint is the apparent distance and angle from which the camera views and records the subject.There are many different types of camera angles such as the high-angle shot, the low-angle shot, the bird’s-eye view and the worm’s-eye view.   A point of view (POV) shot shows the audience the image through the subject’s eye. Some POV shots use hand-held cameras to create the illusion that the audience is seeing through the subject’s eyes. Bird’s eye shot or bird’s-eye view[3] shots are taken directly above the scene to establish the landscape and the actors relationship to it. Worm’s-eye view is a shot that is looking up from the ground, and is meant to give the viewer the feeling that they are looking up at the character from way below and it is meant to show the view that a child or a pet would have. When considering the camera angle one must remember that each shot is its own individual shot and the camera angle should be taken in context of the scene and film. Extreme long shots are usually done in a high angle so the audience can look down upon a setting or scene. Extreme longs shots are used mainly to open the scene or narrative and show the audience the setting.

camera angles

The camera angle marks the specific location at which a movie camera or video camera is placed to take a shot. A scene may be shot from several camera angles.This will give different experience and sometimes emotion. the different camera angles will have different effects on the viewer and how they perceive the scene that is shot. There are a few different routes that a camera operator could take to achieve their desired effect.

 

Where the camera is placed in relation to the subject greatly affects the way the viewer perceives that subject. A Viewpoint is the apparent distance and angle from which the camera views and records the subject.There are many different types of camera angles such as the high-angle shot, the low-angle shot, the bird’s-eye view and the worm’s-eye view.

 

point of view (POV) shot shows the audience the image through the subject’s eye. Some POV shots use hand-held cameras to create the illusion that the audience is seeing through the subject’s eyes. Bird’s eye shot or bird’s-eye view[3] shots are taken directly above the scene to establish the landscape and the actors relationship to it. Worm’s-eye view is a shot that is looking up from the ground, and is meant to give the viewer the feeling that they are looking up at the character from way below and it is meant to show the view that a child or a pet would have. When considering the camera angle one must remember that each shot is its own individual shot and the camera angle should be taken in context of the scene and film.

Extreme long shots are usually done in a high angle so the audience can look down upon a setting or scene. Extreme longs shots are used mainly to open the scene or narrative and show the audience the setting.

classical hollywood cinema Classical Hollywood cinema or the classical Hollywood narrative,are terms used in film history which designate both a visual and sound style for making motion pictures and a mode of production used in the American film industrybetween 1927 and the early 1960s. This period is often referred to as the “Golden Age of Hollywood.” An identifiable cinematic form emerged during this period called classical Hollywood style. Classical style is fundamentally built on the principle ofcontinuity editing or “invisible” style. That is, the camera and the sound recording should never call attention to themselves (as they might in films from earlier periods, other countries or in a modernist or postmodernist work). During the Golden Age of Hollywood, which lasted from the end of the silent era in American cinema in the late 1920s to the early 1960s, films were prolifically issued by the Hollywood studios. The start of the Golden Age was arguably when The Jazz Singer was released in 1927 and increased box-office profits for films as sound was introduced to feature films. Most Hollywood pictures adhered closely to a genre—Western, slapstick comedy, musical, animated cartoon, biopic (biographical picture)—and the same creative teams often worked on films made by the same studio. After The Jazz Singer was released in 1927, Warner Brothers gained huge success and was able to acquire its own string of movie theatres, after purchasing Stanley Theatres and First National Productions in 1928; MGM had also owned a string of theatres since forming in 1924, known as Loews Theatres, and the Fox film Corporation owned the Fox Theatre strings as well. Also, RKO, another company that owned theatres, had formed in 1928 from a merger between Keith-Orpheum Theaters and the Radio Corporation of America. The style of Classical Hollywood cinema, as elaborated by David Bordwell,[4] has been heavily influenced by the ideas of theRenaissance and its resurgence of mankind as the focal point. Time in classical Hollywood is continuous, since non-linearity calls attention to the illusory workings of the medium. The only permissible manipulation of time in this format is the flashback. It is mostly used to introduce a memory sequence of a character, e.g.Casablanca. The Classic Hollywood narrative is structured with an unmistakable beginning, middle and end, and generally there is a distinct resolution at the end. Utilizing actors, events, causal effects, main points and secondary points are basic characteristics of this type of narrative. The characters in Classical Hollywood Cinema have clearly definable traits, are active, and very goal oriented. They are causal agents motivated by psychological rather than social concerns.

classical hollywood cinema

Classical Hollywood cinema or the classical Hollywood narrative,are terms used in film history which designate both a visual and sound style for making motion pictures and a mode of production used in the American film industrybetween 1927 and the early 1960s. This period is often referred to as the “Golden Age of Hollywood.” An identifiable cinematic form emerged during this period called classical Hollywood style.

Classical style is fundamentally built on the principle ofcontinuity editing or “invisible” style. That is, the camera and the sound recording should never call attention to themselves (as they might in films from earlier periods, other countries or in a modernist or postmodernist work).

During the Golden Age of Hollywood, which lasted from the end of the silent era in American cinema in the late 1920s to the early 1960s, films were prolifically issued by the Hollywood studios. The start of the Golden Age was arguably when The Jazz Singer was released in 1927 and increased box-office profits for films as sound was introduced to feature films. Most Hollywood pictures adhered closely to a genre—Western, slapstick comedy, musical, animated cartoon, biopic (biographical picture)—and the same creative teams often worked on films made by the same studio.

After The Jazz Singer was released in 1927, Warner Brothers gained huge success and was able to acquire its own string of movie theatres, after purchasing Stanley Theatres and First National Productions in 1928; MGM had also owned a string of theatres since forming in 1924, known as Loews Theatres, and the Fox film Corporation owned the Fox Theatre strings as well. Also, RKO, another company that owned theatres, had formed in 1928 from a merger between Keith-Orpheum Theaters and the Radio Corporation of America.

The style of Classical Hollywood cinema, as elaborated by David Bordwell,[4] has been heavily influenced by the ideas of theRenaissance and its resurgence of mankind as the focal point.

Time in classical Hollywood is continuous, since non-linearity calls attention to the illusory workings of the medium. The only permissible manipulation of time in this format is the flashback. It is mostly used to introduce a memory sequence of a character, e.g.Casablanca.

The Classic Hollywood narrative is structured with an unmistakable beginning, middle and end, and generally there is a distinct resolution at the end. Utilizing actors, events, causal effects, main points and secondary points are basic characteristics of this type of narrative. The characters in Classical Hollywood Cinema have clearly definable traits, are active, and very goal oriented. They are causal agents motivated by psychological rather than social concerns.

french new wave The New Wave (French: La Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced by Italian Neorealism and classical Hollywood cinema.[1] Although never a formally organized movement, the New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of the literary period pieces being made in France and written by novelists, their spirit of youthful iconoclasm, the desire to shoot more current social issues on location, and their intention of experimenting with the film form. “New Wave” is an example of European art cinema. Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm. Using portable equipment and requiring little or no set up time, the New Wave way of filmmaking presented a documentary style. The films exhibited direct sounds on film stock that required less light. Filming techniques included fragmented, discontinuous editing, and long takes. The combination of objective realism, subjective realism, and authorial commentary created a narrative ambiguity in the sense that questions that arise in a film are not answered in the end.   The movies featured unprecedented methods of expression, such as long tracking shot. Also, these movies featured existential themes, such as stressing the individual and the acceptance of the absurdity of human existence. Filled with irony and sarcasm, the films also tend to reference other films.   Many of the French New Wave films were produced on tight budgets; often shot in a friend’s apartment or yard, using the director’s friends as the cast and crew. Directors were also forced to improvise with equipment.   At the heart of New Wave technique is the issue of money and production value. In the context of social and economic troubles of a post-World War II France, filmmakers sought low-budget alternatives to the usual production methods, and were inspired by the generation of Italian Neorealists before them. Half necessity and half vision, New Wave directors used all that they had available to channel their artistic visions directly to the theatre.

french new wave

The New Wave (FrenchLa Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced by Italian Neorealism and classical Hollywood cinema.[1] Although never a formally organized movement, the New Wave filmmakers were linked by their self-conscious rejection of the literary period pieces being made in France and written by novelists, their spirit of youthful iconoclasm, the desire to shoot more current social issues on location, and their intention of experimenting with the film form. “New Wave” is an example of European art cinema. Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, making their radical experiments with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm. Using portable equipment and requiring little or no set up time, the New Wave way of filmmaking presented a documentary style. The films exhibited direct sounds on film stock that required less light. Filming techniques included fragmented, discontinuous editing, and long takes. The combination of objective realism, subjective realism, and authorial commentary created a narrative ambiguity in the sense that questions that arise in a film are not answered in the end.

 

The movies featured unprecedented methods of expression, such as long tracking shot. Also, these movies featured existential themes, such as stressing the individual and the acceptance of the absurdity of human existence. Filled with irony and sarcasm, the films also tend to reference other films.

 

Many of the French New Wave films were produced on tight budgets; often shot in a friend’s apartment or yard, using the director’s friends as the cast and crew. Directors were also forced to improvise with equipment.

 

At the heart of New Wave technique is the issue of money and production value. In the context of social and economic troubles of a post-World War II France, filmmakers sought low-budget alternatives to the usual production methods, and were inspired by the generation of Italian Neorealists before them. Half necessity and half vision, New Wave directors used all that they had available to channel their artistic visions directly to the theatre.

italian neorealism Italian Neorealism is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors. Italian Neorealist films mostly contend with the difficult economic and moral conditions of post-World War II Italy, representing changes in the Italian psyche and conditions of everyday life, including poverty, oppression, injustice and desperation. Italian Neorealism came about as World War II ended and Benito Mussolini's government fell, causing the Italian film industry to lose its center. Neorealism was a sign of cultural change and social progress in Italy. Its films presented contemporary stories and ideas, and were often shot in the streets because the film studios had been damaged significantly during the war.   They are generally filmed with nonprofessional actors—although, in a number of cases, well known actors were cast in leading roles, playing strongly against their normal character types in front of a background populated by local people rather than extras brought in for the film. They are shot almost exclusively on location, mostly in run-down cities as well as rural areas due to its forming during the post-war era. The topic involves the idea of what it is like to live among the poor and the lower working class. The focus is on a simple social order of survival in rural, everyday life. Performances are mostly constructed from scenes of people performing fairly mundane and quotidian activities, devoid of the self-consciousness that amateur acting usually entails. Neorealist films often feature children in major roles, though their characters are frequently more observational than participatory. Main works Ossessione (Luchino Visconti, 1942) Open City (Roberto Rossellini, 1945) Shoeshine (Vittorio De Sica, 1946) Paisan (Roberto Rossellini, 1946) Germany, Year Zero (Roberto Rossellini, 1948) The Bicycle Thief (Vittorio De Sica, 1948) The Earth Trembles (Luchino Visconti, 1948) Bitter Rice (Giuseppe De Santis, 1949) Stromboli (Roberto Rossellini, 1950) Bellissima (Luchino Visconti, 1951) Miracle in Milan (Vittorio De Sica, 1951) Rome 11:00 (Giuseppe De Santis, 1952) Umberto D. (Vittorio De Sica, 1952) — filmed in 1951, but released in 1952. Many film historians date the end of the neorealist movement with the public attacks on the film.

italian neorealism

Italian Neorealism is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors. Italian Neorealist films mostly contend with the difficult economic and moral conditions of post-World War II Italy, representing changes in the Italian psyche and conditions of everyday life, including poverty, oppression, injustice and desperation.

Italian Neorealism came about as World War II ended and Benito Mussolini's government fell, causing the Italian film industry to lose its center. Neorealism was a sign of cultural change and social progress in Italy. Its films presented contemporary stories and ideas, and were often shot in the streets because the film studios had been damaged significantly during the war.

 

They are generally filmed with nonprofessional actors—although, in a number of cases, well known actors were cast in leading roles, playing strongly against their normal character types in front of a background populated by local people rather than extras brought in for the film.

They are shot almost exclusively on location, mostly in run-down cities as well as rural areas due to its forming during the post-war era.

The topic involves the idea of what it is like to live among the poor and the lower working class. The focus is on a simple social order of survival in rural, everyday life. Performances are mostly constructed from scenes of people performing fairly mundane and quotidian activities, devoid of the self-consciousness that amateur acting usually entails. Neorealist films often feature children in major roles, though their characters are frequently more observational than participatory.

Main works

soviet montage Soviet montage theory is an approach to understanding and creating cinema that relies heavily upon editing (montage is French for ‘assembly’ or ‘editing’). Although Soviet filmmakers in the 1920s disagreed about how exactly to view montage, Sergei Eisensteinmarked a note of accord in “A Dialectic Approach to Film Form” when he noted that montage is “the nerve of cinema”, and that “to determine the nature of montage is to solve the specific problem of cinema”.   Methods of montage Metric - where the editing follows a specific number of frames (based purely on the physical nature of time), cutting to the next shot no matter what is happening within the image. This montage is used to elicit the most basal and emotional of reactions in the audience. Metric montage example from Eisenstein’s October. Rhythmic - includes cutting based on continuity, creating visual continuity from edit to edit. Rhythmic montage example from The Good The Bad and the Ugly where the protagonist and the two antagonists face off in a three-way duel Another rhythmic montage example from The Battleship Potemkin’s “Odessa steps” sequence. Tonal - a tonal montage uses the emotional meaning of the shots—not just manipulating the temporal length of the cuts or its rhythmical characteristics—to elicit a reaction from the audience even more complex than from the metric or rhythmic montage. For example, a sleeping baby would emote calmness and relaxation. Tonal example from Eisenstein’s The Battleship Potemkin. This is the clip following the death of the revolutionary sailor Vakulinchuk, a martyr for sailors and workers. Overtonal/Associational - the overtonal montage is the cumulation of metric, rhythmic, and tonal montage to synthesize its effect on the audience for an even more abstract and complicated effect.Intellectual - uses shots which, combined, elicit an intellectual meaning.[2] Overtonal example from Pudovkin’s Mother. In this clip, the men are workers walking towards a confrontation at their factory, and later in the movie, the protagonist uses ice as a means of escape.[1]. Intellectual montage examples from Eisenstein’s October and Strike. In Strike, a shot of striking workers being attacked cut with a shot of a bull being slaughtered creates a film metaphor suggesting that the workers are being treated like cattle. This meaning does not exist in the individual shots; it only arises when they are juxtaposed. At the end of Apocalypse Now the execution of Colonel Kurtz is juxtaposed with the villagers’ ritual slaughter of a water buffalo.   Eisenstein’s theory of montage In formal terms, this style of editing offers discontinuity in graphic qualities, violations of the 180 degree rule, and the creation of impossible spatial matches. It is not concerned with the depiction of a comprehensible spatial or temporal continuity as is found in theclassical Hollywood continuity system. It draws attention to temporal ellipses because changes between shots are obvious, less fluid, and non-seamless.[clarification needed] Eisenstein describes five methods of montage in his introductory essay “Word and Image”. These varieties of montage build one upon the other so the “higher” forms also include the approaches of the “simpler” varieties. In addition, the “lower” types of montage are limited to the complexity of meaning which they can communicate, and as the montage rises in complexity, so will the meaning it is able to communicate (primal emotions to intellectual ideals). It is easiest to understand these as part of a spectrum where, at one end, the image content matters very little, while at the other it determines everything about the choices and combinations of the edited film. Eisenstein’s montage theories are based on the idea that montage originates in the “collision” between different shots in an illustration of the idea of thesis and antithesis. This basis allowed him to argue that montage is inherently dialectical, thus it should be considered a demonstration of Marxism and Hegelian philosophy. His collisions of shots were based on conflicts of scale, volume, rhythm, motion (speed, as well as direction of movement within the frame), as well as more conceptual values such as class.

soviet montage

Soviet montage theory is an approach to understanding and creating cinema that relies heavily upon editing (montage is French for ‘assembly’ or ‘editing’). Although Soviet filmmakers in the 1920s disagreed about how exactly to view montage, Sergei Eisensteinmarked a note of accord in “A Dialectic Approach to Film Form” when he noted that montage is “the nerve of cinema”, and that “to determine the nature of montage is to solve the specific problem of cinema”.

 

Methods of montage

  • Metric - where the editing follows a specific number of frames (based purely on the physical nature of time), cutting to the next shot no matter what is happening within the image. This montage is used to elicit the most basal and emotional of reactions in the audience.
  • Rhythmic - includes cutting based on continuity, creating visual continuity from edit to edit.
  • Tonal - a tonal montage uses the emotional meaning of the shots—not just manipulating the temporal length of the cuts or its rhythmical characteristics—to elicit a reaction from the audience even more complex than from the metric or rhythmic montage. For example, a sleeping baby would emote calmness and relaxation.
  • Overtonal/Associational - the overtonal montage is the cumulation of metric, rhythmic, and tonal montage to synthesize its effect on the audience for an even more abstract and complicated effect.Intellectual - uses shots which, combined, elicit an intellectual meaning.[2]
    • Overtonal example from Pudovkin’s Mother. In this clip, the men are workers walking towards a confrontation at their factory, and later in the movie, the protagonist uses ice as a means of escape.[1].
    • Intellectual montage examples from Eisenstein’s October and Strike. In Strike, a shot of striking workers being attacked cut with a shot of a bull being slaughtered creates a film metaphor suggesting that the workers are being treated like cattle. This meaning does not exist in the individual shots; it only arises when they are juxtaposed.
    • At the end of Apocalypse Now the execution of Colonel Kurtz is juxtaposed with the villagers’ ritual slaughter of a water buffalo.

 

Eisenstein’s theory of montage

In formal terms, this style of editing offers discontinuity in graphic qualities, violations of the 180 degree rule, and the creation of impossible spatial matches. It is not concerned with the depiction of a comprehensible spatial or temporal continuity as is found in theclassical Hollywood continuity system. It draws attention to temporal ellipses because changes between shots are obvious, less fluid, and non-seamless.[clarification needed]

Eisenstein describes five methods of montage in his introductory essay “Word and Image”. These varieties of montage build one upon the other so the “higher” forms also include the approaches of the “simpler” varieties. In addition, the “lower” types of montage are limited to the complexity of meaning which they can communicate, and as the montage rises in complexity, so will the meaning it is able to communicate (primal emotions to intellectual ideals). It is easiest to understand these as part of a spectrum where, at one end, the image content matters very little, while at the other it determines everything about the choices and combinations of the edited film.

Eisenstein’s montage theories are based on the idea that montage originates in the “collision” between different shots in an illustration of the idea of thesis and antithesis. This basis allowed him to argue that montage is inherently dialectical, thus it should be considered a demonstration of Marxism and Hegelian philosophy. His collisions of shots were based on conflicts of scale, volume, rhythm, motion (speed, as well as direction of movement within the frame), as well as more conceptual values such as class.



“Obsession is a young man’s game, and my only excuse is that I never grew old.” - Sir Michael Caine
nyfa:

“Imagine what a harmonious world it could be if every single person, both young and old shared a little of what he is good at doing.” - Quincy Jones